NCERT Exemplar Problems Class 9 Science – Atoms and Molecules
Which of the following correctly represents 360 g of water?
(i) 2 moles of H20
(ii) 20 moles of water
(iii) 022 x 1023 molecules of water
(iv) 12044 x 1025 molecules of water
(a) only (i) (b) (i) and (iv)
(c) (ii) and (iii) (d) (ii) and (iv)
(d) (ii) and (iv) points correctly represent 360 g of water.
Which of the following statements is not true about an atom?
(a)Atoms are not able to exist independently
(b)Atoms are the basic units from which molecules and ions are formed
(c)Atoms are always neutral in nature
(d) Atoms aggregate in large numbers to form the matter that we can see, feel or touch
(d) This statement is not true
The correct statement is as The molecules and ions aggregate together in large number to form the matter. We cannot see the individual molecules/ions with our eyes, only we can see the various substances which are a big collection of molecules/ions. So, option (d) is incorrect.
Atoms of most of the elements are chemically very reactive and do not exist in the free state. The atoms of only noble gases are chemically unreactive and exist in free state. Atoms usually exist in the two forms
(i) molecules and (ii) ions
Therefore, atoms are the basic unit from which molecules and ions are formed.
When atoms form molecules or ions, they become stable because they acquire the stable noble gas electron arrangement. Therefore, they are neutral in nature.
The chemical symbol for nitrogen gas is
(a) Ni (b) N2 (c)N+ (d) N
(b) Nitrogen molecule is diatomic molecule, therefore, it exists as N2 molecules.
The chemical symbol for sodium is
(a) So (b) Sd (c) NA (d) Na
(d) The chemical symbol for sodium is derived from its Latin name ‘Natrium’. In a ‘two letter’ symbol, the first letter is the ‘capital letter’ but the second letter is the ‘small letter’. Therefore, its symbol is ‘Na’.
Which of the following would weigh the highest?
(a) 0.2 mole of sucrose (C12 H22 O,,) (b) 2 moles of C02
(c) 2 moles of CaC03 (d) 10 moles of H20
(c) 2 moles of CaC03 would weigh the highest.
(a)Mass of 1 mole of sucrose (12 x12) + (1 x22)+ (16×11)= 342 g
Mass of 0.2 mole of sucrose = 342 x 0.2 = 68.4g
(b)Mass of 1 mole of C02 = 12 + (16 x 2) = 44g .-. Mass of 2 moles of C02 = 44 x 2 = 88 g
(c)Mass of 1 mole of CaC03 = 40 + 12 + (16 x 3) = 10Og
Mass of 2 moles of CaC03 = 100 x 2 = 200 g
(d)Mass of 1 mole of H20 = 2 + 16 = 18g
Mass of 10 moles of H20 = 18x 10 = 180g
Therefore, mass of 2 moles of CaC03 is the highest, i.e., 200 g.
Which of the following has maximum number of atoms?
(a) 18 g of H20 (b) 18 g of 02
(c) 18 g of C02 (d) 18 g of CH4
Which of the following contains maximum number of molecules?
(a) 1 g C02 (b) 1 g N2 (c) 1 g H2 (d) 1 g CH4
(a) Mass of 6.023 x 1023 atoms of oxygen = gram atomic mass of oxygen Mass of 6.023 x 1023 atoms of oxygen = 16g
3.42 g of sucrose are dissolved in 18g of water in a beaker. The number of oxygen atoms in the solution are
(a) 6.68 x 1023 (b) 6.09 x1022 (c) 6.022 x1023 (d)6O22 x1021
A change in the physical state can be brought about
(a) only when energy is given to the system
(b) only when energy is taken out from the system
(c) when energy is either given to, or taken out from the system
(d) without any energy change
(c) A change in the physical state can be brought about when energy is either given to, or taken out from the system. It is because, energy change helps in changing the magnitude of attraction forces between the particles, thus helps in changing the physical states (j.e., solid, liquid, gas) of matter.
Short Answer Type Questions
Which of the following represents a correct chemical formula? Name it.
(a)CaCl (b) BiP04 (c) NaS04 (d) NaS
(b) BiP04, is the correct formula, its name is bismuth phosphate.
Write the molecular formulae for the following compounds
(a)Copper (II) bromide (b) Aluminium (III) nitrate
(c) Calcium (II) phosphate (d) Iron (III) sulphide
(e) Mercury (II) chloride (f) Magnesium (II) acetate
Write the molecular formulae of all the compounds that can be formed by the combination of following ions.
Write the cations and anions present (if any) in the following compounds.
(b) CH3COONa (b) NaCI
(c) H2 (d) NH4N03
Give the formulae of the compounds formed from the following sets of elements.
(a) Calcium and fluorine (b) Hydrogen and sulphur
(c) Nitrogen and hydrogen (d) Carbon and chlorine
(e) Sodium and oxygen (f) Carbon and oxygen
Which of the following symbols of elements are incorrect? Give their correct symbols.
(a) Cobalt CO (b) Carbon c
(c) Aluminium AL (d) Helium He
(e) Sodium So
(a) Cobalt CO is incorrect symbol. Its correct symbol is Co.
(b) Carbon c is incorrect symbol. Its correct symbol is C.
(c) Aluminium AL is incorrect symbol. Its correct symbol is Al.
(e) Sodium So is incorrect symbol. Its correct symbol is Na. (It is derived from Latin name ‘Natrium’).
(d) Helium, He is the correct symbol.
Give the chemical formulae for the following compounds and compute the ratio by mass of the combining elements in each one of them.
(a) Ammonia (b) Carbon monoxide
(c) Hydrogen chloride (d) Aluminium fluoride
(e) Magnesium sulphide
State the number of atoms present in each of the following chemical species
(a) Number of atoms in COg’ = number of C-atOms + number of O-atoms = 1 + 3 = 4
(b) Number of atoms in PO®– = number of P-atoms + number of O-atoms =1+4=5
(c) Number of atoms in P205 = number of P-atoms + number of O-atoms =2 + 5 = 7
(d) Numbfer of atoms in CO = number of C-atoms + number of O-atoms =1 + 1 = 2
What is the fraction of the mass of water due to neutrons?
In water molecule (H20), number of neutrons = [(number of neutrons in H) x 2 + (number of neutrons in O)]
= 0x2 + 8=8 (as number of neutrons in H =0)
Mass of 8 neutrons = 8 x 1.00893 = 8.07 (v mass of one neutron = 1.008934)
Molar mass of water = 1.008 x 2 + 16.0 = 18.016 u
Does the solubility of a substance change with temperature? Explain with the help of an example
Yes, the solubility of a substance changes with temperature.
The maximum amount of a solute which can be dissolved in 100 g of a solvent at a specified temperature is called its solubility.
Effect of temperature on solubility
(i) The solubility of solids in liquids usually increases on increasing the temperature and decreases on decreasing the temperature.
(ii) The solubility of gases in liquids usually decreases on increasing the temperature and increases on decreasing the temperature.
Let us take an example of copper sulphate.
The solubilities of copper sulphate in water at various temperatures are given below
From the above data, it is clear that, when the temperature is increased from 0°C to 70°C, the solubility of copper sulphate in water increases from 14 g to 47g. The above data shows that the solubility of a salt increases on increasing the temperature.
Classify each of the following on the basis of their atomicity.
(a) F2 (b) N02 (c) N20 (d) C2H6
(e) P4 (f) H202 (g) P4010 (h) 03
(i) HCl (j) CH4 (k) He (l) Ag
They are classified as
Monoatomic (k) He, (1) Ag
Diatomic (a) F2, (i) HCl
Polyatomic (b) N02, (c) N20, (d) C2H6, (e) P4, (f) H202, (g) P4O10, (h) 03, (j) CH4.
You are provided with a fine white coloured powder which is either sugar or salt. How would you identify it without testing?
There are many ways by which we can differentiate between sugar and salt without testing
(i) Dissolve salt and sugar separately in alcohol, sugar will be dissolved in it while salt will not be
(ii) Heat these salts separately, sugar will melt readily while salt will not.
(iii) Dissolve these two separately in water. Salt solution will conduct electricity due to the presence of Na+ion and CF ion while sugar solution will be a non-conductor. So, simply test a drop of the solution with an ohmmeter and you can immediately tell the difference.
Calculate the number of moles of magnesium present in a magnesium ribbon weighing 12g. Molar atomic mass of magnesium is 24 g mol-1.
Long Answer Type Questions
Verify by calculating that
(a) 5 moles of C02 and 5 moles of H20 do not have the same mass.
(b) 240 g of calcium and 240 g magnesium elements have a mole ratio of 3 : 5.
Find the ratio by mass of the combining elements in the following compounds.
(a) CaC03 (b) MgCl2 (c) H2S04 (d) C2H50H
(e) NH3 (f) Ca(0H)2
(a) CaCOg → Ca: C :0 = 40:12 : 48= 10 : 3:12
(b) MgCI2 → Mg : Cl = 24 : 2x 35.5 = 24 : 71
(c) H2 S04→ H : S : O = 2x 1 : 32 : 4x 16 = 2 : 32 : 64= 1:16: 32
(d) C2 H5 OH → C : H : 0 = 2x 12 : 6x 1 : 16 = 24: 6:16= 12 : 3: 8
(e) NH3 → N : H = 14 : 3x 1=14: 3
(f) Ca (OH)2 → Ca : 0 : H = 40 : 2x 16 : 2x 1= 40: 32 :2 = 20 :16:1
Calcium chloride when dissolved in water dissociates into its ions according to the following equation.
CaCl2(og) → Ca2+ (aq) + 2Cl_ (aq)
Calculate the number of ions obtained from CaCl2 when 222 g of it is dissolved in water.
The difference in the mass of 100 moles each of sodium atoms and sodium ions is 5.48002 g. Compute the mass of an electron.
Sodium atom loses an electron to form sodium ion,
Cinnabar (HgS) is a prominent ore of mercury. How many grams of mercury are present in 225 g of pure HgS? Molar mass of Hg and S are 200.6 g mol-1 and 32g mol-1 respectively.
The mass of one steel screw is 4.11 g. Find the mass of one mole of these steel screws. Compare this value with the mass of the earth (5.98 x 1024 kg). Which one of the two is heavier and by how many times?
A sample of vitamin C is known to contain 2.58 x 1024 oxygen atoms. How many moles of oxygen atoms are present in the sample?
Raunak took 5 moles of carbon atoms in a container and Krish also took 5 moles of sodium atoms in another container of same weight.
(a) Whose container is heavier?
(b) Whose container has more number of atoms?
(a) 1 mole = molar mass of a substance.
∴ 1 mole of carbon atoms weigh = 12g
∴5 moles of carbon atoms will weigh = 12 x 5 = 60 g
Hence, Raunak’s container has weigh = 60 g In the same way,
∴ 1 mole of sodium atoms weigh =23g
∴ 5 moles of sodium atoms will weigh = 23 x 5 = 115 g
Hence, Krish’s container has weigh = 115 g
Thus, Krish’s container is heavier than Raunak’s container.
As, 1 mole = 6.022 x 1023 atoms
(b)Here, both containers have 5 moles of each carbon and sodium, therefore, both containers have equal number of atoms, e., 5 x 6.022 x 1023 atoms,
or 3.011 x 1024 atoms in each.
Fill in the missing data in the following table
The visible universe is estimated to contain 1022 stars. How many moles of stars are present in the visible universe?
What is SI prefix for each of the following multiples and submultiples of a unit?
Express each of the following in kilograms
Compute the difference in masses of 103 moles each of magnesium atoms and magnesium ions. (Mass of an electron =9.1 x 10-31 kg)
Which has more number of atoms?
100 g of N2 or 100 g of NH3
Compute the number of ions present in 5.85 g of sodium chloride.
A gold sample contains 90% of gold and the rest copper. How many atoms of gold are present in one gram of this sample of gold?
What are ionic and molecular compounds? Give examples.
Ionic compounds are those compounds which are made up of ions. In ionic compounds, the positively charged ions (cations) and negatively charged ions (anions) are held together by the strong electrostatic forces of attraction, which are known as ionic bonds or electrovalent bonds, e.g., sodium chloride (NaCI), calcium oxide (CaO), etc.
Molecular compounds are those compounds in which the atoms of the elements share electrons via covalent bonds . Thus, in these compounds, covalent bonds are present, e.g., methane (CH4), water (H20) etc.
Compute the difference in masses of one mole each of aluminium atoms and one mole of its ions (Mass of an electron is 9.1 x 10-28 g). Which one is heavier?
Ionisation of Al atom occurs as Al —> Al3+ + 3e“
Therefore, Al3+ ion is formed from Al atom by loss of 3 electrons. Difference in mass of 1 mole of Al atoms and 1 mole of Al3+ ions
= mass of 3 x 6.022 x 1023 electrons
= (3 x 6.022 x 1023) x (9.1 x 10-28 g)
(as mass of an electron = 9.1 x 10-28 g)
= 164.4×10-5g = 1.644×10-3g
1 mole of Al atoms is heavier than 1 mole of Al3+ ions.
It is because 1 mole of Al atom have e– = 13 x 6.022 x 1023 electrons and 1 mole of Al ion have e“ = 10 x 6.022 x 1023 electrons
A silver ornament of mass’m’ gram is polished with gold equivalent to 1% of the mass of silver. Compute the ratio of the number of atoms of gold and silver in the ornament.
A sample of ethane (C2H6) gas has the same mass as 1.5 x 1020 molecules of methane (CH4). How many C2H6 molecules does the sample of gas contain?
Fill in the blanks.
(a) In a chemical reaction, the sum of the masses of the reactants and
products remains unchanged. This is called………………
(b) A group of atoms carrying a fixed charge on them is called………………..
(c) The formula unit mass of Ca3(P04)2 is………………
(d) Formula of sodium carbonate is ……………….. and that of ammonium
(a) In a chemical reaction, the sum of the masses of the reactants and products remains unchanged. This is called law of conservation of mass.
(b) A group of atoms carrying a fixed charge on them is called polyatomic ion.
(c) The formula unit mass of Ca3(P04)2 is 310
(d) Formula of sodium carbonate is Na2C03 and that of ammonium sulphate is
Complete the following crossword puzzle (Figure) by using the name of the chemical elements. Use the data given in the table following.
(a) In this crossword puzzle (Figure), names of 11 elements are hidden. Symbols of these are given below. Complete the puzzle.
Write the formulae for the following and calculate the molecular mass for each one of them.
(a) Caustic potash (b) Baking powder (c) Lime stone
(d) Caustic soda (e) Ethanol (f) Common salt
In photosynthesis, 6 molecules of carbon dioxide combine with an equal number of water molecules through a complex series of reactions to give a molecule of glucose having a molecular formula C6H1206. How many grams of water would be required to produce 18 g of glucose? Compute the volume of water so consumed assuming the density of water to be 1 g cm-3.