QUESTIONS FROM TEXTBOOK SOLVED
Look at the Picture and Write
1.What are the different kinds of vehicles that you can see?
Ans.It can see following vehicles; bus, car, motorcycle, scooter, auto-rickshaw, cycle, etc.
2.What do you think they need as fuel?
Ans.Cycle does not need fuel, but other vehicles shown here need petrol or diesel as fuel.
3.Which of the vehicles do you think give off smoke? Put a red mark on those.
Ans.Bus, car, auto-rickshaw, motorcycle, scooter, etc. give off smoke. (Mark all vehicles except cycle.)
1.Do you ride a bicycle? If yes, where all do you go on it?
Ans.Yes, I ride a bicycle. I use bicycle for going to school, playground and market.
2.How do you come to school?
Ans.I come to school by my bicycle.
3.How do your family members go to work from home?
Ans.My father goes by car, my mother goes by bus or auto-rickshaw and my uncle goes by motorcycle.
4.What problems can we have from smoke coming out of vehicles?
Ans.The smoke from vehicles can cause coughing, nausea, headache and lung diseases.
1.Which states in India have oil fields?
Ans.Following states in India have oil fields: Assam, Gujarat, Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh.
2.Besides oil, what else is found deep inside the earth?
Ans.Besides oil, many minerals are found deep inside the earth, e.g. coal, iron, copper, bauxite, gold, etc.
1.What all can vehicles run on?
Ans.Vehicles can run on petrol, diesel, CNG, LPG, battery and solar energy.
2.What kinds of problems will we face, if the number of vehicles keep on increasing? For example, more traffic on the road. Talk to your elders and write about it.
Ans.If the number of vehicles keep on increasing it would lead to many problems like; increased traffic on the road, air pollution, noise pollution, accidents, etc.
3. Manju said, “why doesn’t everyone use a bus?” What do you think, why don’t people travel by buses?
Ans. Buses are overcrowded and hence people want to avoid them. Poor people prefer bicycle, in order to save money. Rich people use cars and bikes for convenience.
4.Suggest some ways to deal with the problems arising out of the growing number of vehicles.
Ans. Following solutions can be used for dealing with the problems of growing number of vehicles:
(a) People should prefer public transport; like bus, trains, metro trains, etc.
(b) People should use car pool, i.e. sharing car with colleagues.
Find Out and Write
The rates of petrol are different in each city. The rates of petrol and diesel in Chennai are given here. Look at the table and answer the questions:
2.In…….years the rate of petrol went up by Rs……..The rate of diesel
increased by Rs………
Ans.In five years the rate of petrol went up by Rs.19. The rate of diesel increased by Rs.15.
3.What was the difference in the rates of petrol and diesel in the year 2007?
1.What is the price of petrol and diesel in your area?
Ans. In my area the price of petrol is ? 68 and that of diesel is ? 45.
2.Why are the prices of petrol and diesel going up?
Ans. The production of petrol and diesel is limited and consumption is increasing day by day. That is why the prices of petrol and diesel are going up.
3.In one month how much petrol and diesel is used in your home? What is it used for?
Ans. In my home about 50 litres of petrol and 10 litres of diesel are used. Petrol is used for conveyance and diesel is used for generator.
See the Poster and Write
1.Where all is oil used?
Ans.Oil is used for dry cleaning, as fuel for automobiles and airplanes, as kerosene and LPG, to run machines and for making plastic and paints.
2.Where is diesel used? Find out.
Ans.Diesel is used as fuel for cars, buses, trucks, tractors, trains and generators. Additionally, diesel is also used for running machines in factories.
Think and Discuss
1.What would happen if you don’t get petrol or diesel for a week in your village or town?
Ans.If petrol or diesel will not be available for a week in my area, the life will become difficult for everyone. The transport system would come to a standstill. Small or big factories will have to stop operation. There will be no electricity backup from generators, in case of power failure.
2.Suggest some ways to save oil.
Ans.Following steps can be taken to save oil:
(a) Use public transport instead of personal vehicles.
(b) Prefer walking or cycling if you need to go short distances.
(c) Switch of the engine of vehicle on red lights.
(d) Use solar energy wherever possible.
(e) Pulses, rice, etc. should be soaked in water before cooking.
1.Have you ever collected dry wood or made cow dung cakes? How are they made?
Ans.Yes, I have collected dry wood to make a bonfire during winters. I have never made cow dung cakes but have seen some ladies making them. Hay is mixed with cow dung and the mixture is given a shape of a cake. It is sun dried to make cow dung cakes
2.Do you know anyone who collects dry wood or leaves to be used for lighting a chulha?
Ans.Yes, I have seen some people in villages collecting dry wood and leaves. I asked them and they said that they were collecting them for use as kitchen fuel but not for lighting.
3.Who cooks food in your family? What about other families in your area?
Ans.My mother cooks food in my family. In other families in my area; the ladies cook food. In some homes servants also cook food.
4.If they cook food using wood or upla (cow dung cakes), what difficulties do they face due to smoke?
Ans. The smoke from wood or cow dung cakes creates many difficulties; like coughing, nausea, headache and lung diseases.
5.Can Durga use anything else instead of wood? Why not?
Ans.Yes,Durga can use cow dung cakes but she cannot buy kerosene or LPG. She is too poor to buy fuel.
Change in Fuel Use Over Twenty Years
1.In year 1976, out of 100, how many houses used up and wood?
2.Which was the fuel used the least in 1976?
3.In 1976, LPG and Kerosene were used in…….houses and in 1996 this increased to…….. This means that in twenty years their use increased by……….%.
Ans.In 1976, LPG and Kerosene were used in ID houses and in 1996 this increased to 18. This means that in twenty years their use increased by 80%.
4.Out of 100, how many houses were using electricity in 1996?
5.Which fuel was used the least in 1996? What percentage of houses used it in the year 1976?
Ans.Coal was used the least in 1996. In 1976 it was used in 5% of houses.
Find Out From Your Elders
1.When they were young what was then used to cook food at home?
Ans.When they were young; mainly coal was used to cook food at home. Apart from coal; firewood and cow dung cakes were also used.
2.In the past 10 years use of which cooking fuel has increased in your area? Use of which fuel has decreased?
Ans.In the past 10 years use of LPG and electricity has increased in my area. Use of wood, coal and upla has decreased.
3.Guess the use of which fuel would increase and which would decrease in the next 10 years.
Ans.In the next 10 years, use of LPG and electricity will increase and use of wood, coal and cow dung cakes wifi decrease.
What We Have Learnt
1.Imagine that a company has given you a chance to design a new vehicle like a mini bus. What kind of vehicle would you design? Write about it. Draw a picture and colour it.
Ans.I will design a vehicle which is environment friendly. It will run on solar power. The vehicle will be disabled friendly. Children and elderly should be able to easily access the vehicle.
2.While making the design, what did you plan to take care of:
(а) Old people
(c) Those who cannot see.
Ans.(a) Low floor, seat belts
(b) Low floor, closed door, grills on windows
(c) Tactile sensors at gStes and on grab handles near seats.
3.Make a poster with a message on saving fuel. Write a slogan too. Where would you like to put up this poster?
SLOGAN: “Save Oil and Save Money”
I will put up this poster near petrol filling stations.