The Participle – पार्टीसिपल (पूर्व कालिक क्रिया)
Participles are used to define the forms of the verbs for the continuous and perfect tenses. It is also used to qualify nouns or pronouns.
पार्टिसिपल से क्रिया के continous और perfect रूप बनाये जाते हैं. इनका उप्योग noun और pronoun के वर्णन के लिये भी किया जाता है.
The form of verb that has the characteristics of both a verb and an adjective is known as a participle.
पार्टिसिपल (participle) क्रिया का वह रूप जिसमें क्रिया (verb) और विशेषण (adjective) दोनों का ही स्वभाव मौजूद हो. इसी लिये इसे Verbal Adjective भी कहते हैं.
|Sheila is going home.||Here the form of go (going) used also plays the roll of adjective for the noun home, while its use along with is denotes a present continous tense.|
Based on the tense being used in the sentence, the participles have two forms… Present Participle and Past Participle.
वाक्य में प्रयुक्त काल के आधार पर participle के दो रूप होते हैं… present participle और past participle.
Present Participle – the form of the participle that indicates that the action in going on, or is incomplete or is imperfect.
|Sheila is going home.||The forms going and carrying both indicate incomplete actions. The tense in the first sentence is present continous, while in the second is past continous.|
|The girl was carrying a basket of flowers.|
Past Participle – the form of the participle that indicates that the action is completed. This is used in the perfect forms of the present, past and future tenses.
|Sheila has gone home.||The forms gone and carried both completed actions. The tense in the first sentence is present perfect, while in the second is past perfect.|
|The girl had carried a basket of flowers.|
Participle Adjectives – the form of the verb that is used to qualify a noun or a verb.
|The lying witness was punished by the judge.||The forms lying and winning both add a description to the nouns that they precede.|
|The winning team received many prizes.|